No captionWorldwide IT spending is forecast to total US$3.49 trillion in 2016, a decline of 0.5 percent over 2015 spending of $3.5 trillion, reports Gartner. This is down from last quarter's forecast of 0.5 percent growth but the change is mainly due to currency fluctuations, says Gartner in its latest quarterly worldwide IT spending forecast .. Thus, while IT spending in New Zealand is forecast to reach NZ$11.5 billion, an increase of 1.4 percent from 2015, when reported in US dollars, there was a decline in spending. The same applies to Australia, where IT spending is forecast to reach A$79.9 billion, an increase in local currency of 2.5 percent over 2015 spending of A$77.9 billion. "There is an undercurrent of economic uncertainty that is driving organisations to tighten their belts, and IT spending is one of the casualties," says John-David Lovelock, research vice president at Gartner. "Concurrently, the need to invest in IT to support digital business is more urgent than ever,\u201d says Lovelock. \u201cBusiness leaders know that they need to become digital businesses or face irrelevance in a digital world. To make that happen, leaders are engaging in tough cost optimisation efforts in some areas to fund digital business in others."There is an undercurrent of economic uncertainty that is driving organisations to tighten their belts, and IT spending is one of the casualtiesJohn-David Lovelock, Gartner "As an example, the savings from legacy system optimisation and enhancements are being redirected to fund digital initiatives. It's about doing more with the same funds," says Lovelock. "Typically, less than 10 per cent of organisations are in cost optimisation or cost cutting mode. However, the need to spend on digital business initiatives in a time when revenue growth does not support runaway IT budgets is forcing more organisations to optimise as a first step. \u201cBusiness processes, as well as IT, are undergoing optimisation \u2014 digital business requires both,\u201d he states. \u201cHowever, many CIOs are reluctant to raise this possibility, given the cultural and political barriers to optimising business costs." The most evident results of these optimisation efforts are in the switches in spending between assets and services. "Most traditional IT now has a 'digital service twin' \u2014 license software has cloud software, servers have Infrastructure as a Service, and cellular voice has VoLTE," says Lovelock. "Things that once had to be purchased as an asset can now be delivered as a service. Most digital service twin offerings change the spending pattern from a large upfront payment to a smaller reoccurring monthly amount. This means that the same level of activity has a very different annual spend."Related: 'What do we get for our IT spending?': A CIO's response The pulse of global technology Gartner releases the following forecast in technology investments: Devices: The device market (PCs, ultramobiles, mobile phones, tablets and printers) is forecast to decline 3.7 per cent in 2016. The smartphone market is approaching global saturation, slowing growth. The PC and ultramobile markets are expected to decline. The underlying reasons are a combination of factors and are geography-specific, and the worsening economic conditions in many countries only serve to amplify the impact of these factors.IT services market: Spending in the IT services market is expected to return to growth in 2016, totaling $929 billion, up 2.1 per cent from 2015. A stronger outlook for Japan and India is nearly balanced by a weaker outlook in Brazil, China and South Korea, based on challenging economic and political conditions in Brazil; and government actions and weakening economic conditions in China and South Korea. Datacentres: Datacentre systems' spending is projected to reach $175 billion in 2016, a 2.1 per cent increase from 2015. This top-level relative stability masks some changes within the segments; enterprise network equipment had a stronger-than-anticipated 2015 as a result of network upgrades, and this is expected to carry on this year. The external-controller-based storage segment continues to suffer from ongoing challenges. In the server segment, demand from hyperscale buyers is expected to reduce in 2016, particularly in regions that are suffering from economic challenges, such as Eurasia. The mainframe refresh, which benefited the market in 2015, is expected to abate in 2016, also inhibiting the overall growth figures. Enterprise software: Global enterprise software spending is on pace to total $321 billion, a 4.2 per cent increase from 2015. The operating system forecast has been downgraded, reflecting Gartner's expectation for further delays in the adoption of Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016. However, it is the key emerging markets, particularly Latin America, which face escalating political and economic challenges that are responsible for the slow growth. Organisations in those regions must balance cost cutting with growth opportunities during times of economic concern. Telecommunications: Telecom service spending is projected to decline 2.0 per cent in 2016, with spending reaching $1.4 trillion. Continuing economic downturns in major markets such as Russia and Brazil are dampening spending in both fixed and mobile voice, and a slight slowdown in China's growth is affecting consumer confidence and eroding spend in fixed voice services, reports Gartner. In enterprise services, conditions in these same three major markets are leading to consolidation among businesses (reducing connections and spend). However, mobile data spending is a bright spot with accelerating growth driven by improved pricing on bandwidth, mobile app and 4G\/LTE network availability.Send news tips and comments to email@example.comFollow Divina Paredes on Twitter: @divinapFollow CIO New Zealand on Twitter:@cio_nzClickhereto read digital editions\nof CIO New ZealandSign up for CIO newsletters for regular updates on CIO news, views and events.Join us on Facebook.Join the CIO New Zealand group on LinkedIn. The\ngroup is open to CIOs, IT Directors, CDOs, COOs, CTOs and senior IT managers.