Marketers and product managers are getting very good at the elaboration of enticing and optimal customer journeys.\u00a0 Their organizations use various agile methodologies in the hope of speeding things up and yet most of them struggle in delivering these journeys on time and within budget. Enterprise and business architecture can unravel and prioritize customer journey initiatives early on by identifying and focusing foremost on the problematic and enabling capabilities of their organization using a \u201cPersonal Loan\u201d customer journey map example.\nCustomer journeys today\nThe recent upsurge of new digital technologies has created empowered customers, forcing companies to adapt and focus on their customer experiences.\nAs David C. Edelman and Marc Singer wrote in \u201cCompeting on customer journeys\u201d:\n\n\u201cNow, leveraging emerging technologies, processes, and organizational structures, companies are restoring the balance of power and creating new value for brands and buyers alike. Central to this shift is a fresh way of thinking: Rather than merely reacting to the journeys that consumers themselves devise, companies are shaping their paths, leading rather than following. Marketers are increasingly managing journeys as they would any product. Journeys are thus becoming central to the customer\u2019s experience of a brand\u2014and as important as the products themselves in providing competitive advantage.\u201d\n\nBased on this article, a customer journey will be variations on the following basic steps:\n\nConsider \u2013 the customer has a need and is considering purchasing a product;\nEvaluate \u2013 the customer is comparing prices and checks on a variety of products, including the organization\u2019s rivals;\nBuy \u2013 the customer commits and buys the product;\nEnjoy \u2013 the customer is satisfied with its purchase;\nAdvocate \u2013 the customer communicates with friends, family and its extended social network about its new purchase\nBond \u2013 the customer identifies with the brand of its selected product to eventually purchase again.\n\nKey elements need to be considered when planning the customer journey within an organisation. First, automation, using artificial intelligence and machine learning among others, can insure that fastidious manual processes are simplified and automated as much as possible. Second, proactive personalization must be advantaged, where services are designed in such a way that they seem very specific to each persona or customer segment targeted by the organization. Third, contextual interaction must also be considered, where the organization can switch from online to physical and back while interacting with its clients. Finally, the use of practical innovations must be examined while optimizing a customer journey, where creating and experimenting with new spheres of value that sometimes did not previously exist.\nLinking customer journeys to value\nLinking the customer experience to value creation both for the customer and the organization is essential to justify any transformation. As pointed out in \u201cCreating value through transforming customer journeys\u201d from McKinsey, \u201cmany customer-experience transformations stall because leaders can\u2019t show how these efforts create value. Patiently building a business case can fund them, secure buy-in, and build momentum.\u201d\nThis is why business architects in conjunction with marketers, product managers and subject matter experts often use value streams to examine closely value creation. Each value stage of a value stream can usually easily be related to a Customer Journey Stage. As indicated on Wikipedia:\n\n\u201cValue streams are artifacts within business architecture that allow a business to specify the value proposition derived by an external (e.g., customer) or internal stakeholder from an organization. (\u2026) The value stream is depicted as an end-to-end collection of value-adding activities that create an overall result for a customer, stakeholder, or end-user. In modeling terms, those value-adding activities are represented by value stream stages, each of which creates and adds incremental stakeholder value items from one stage to the next.\u201d\n\nCustomer journey requires new enabling capabilities\nA set of current and new emerging capabilities is required to capture the value from optimal customer journeys. \u00a0As revealed in another McKinsey report (\u201cCustomer experience: new capabilities, new audiences, new opportunities\u201d), \u201cDecision makers from all stakeholder groups should align together and embrace uncertainty together, developing capabilities throughout the entire design process. The use of existing resources can keep the investment in time and costs low.\u201d\nFocusing on problematic enabling capabilities\nTo ensure the delivery of strategic goals and objectives, a customer-experience measurement system needs to be put in place, where customer journeys are at the base with their enabling current and new capabilities. As well, the preference for a collaborative approach allows to engage key internal stakeholders and bring in a diverse assortment of measurable capabilities throughout the planning process. Measuring current and new customer-centric enabling capabilities, as shown in Figure 1 below, according to their priority, performance and business complexity for example will allow to build strategic initiatives that focus foremost on the capabilities that will provide the most value to both the customer and the organization.\n Daniel Lambert\nAfter measuring the enabling capabilities of the \u201cObtain Personal Loan\u201d value stream for example, the following observations can be mentioned:\n\nThe Account\/Agreement Interest Determination and the Financial Transaction Disbursement Management capabilities are of critical priority and performing low.\nThe Collateral and Loan Pairing capability is of very high priority with low performance.\nThe Client Risk Scoring capability is of high priority and performing low.\nThe Client Survey Management, the Loan Authorization Management and the Financial Transaction and Client Pairing capabilities are of high priority and of high or very high performance. They are not problematic capabilities.\n\nAs mentioned in this article entitled \u201cThe four pillars of distinctive customer journeys,\u201d \u201creaching the top quartile of CX performers is no easy task. Cost, design, and value are emerging as key differentiators for customers, yet companies often lack guiding principles to shape those efforts.\u201d To reach ambitious strategic goals and objectives, an organization need to build its customer-centric initiatives on these four pillars:\n\nFocus on the few issues and capabilities that matter the most to customers;\nProvide easy, simple, short customer journeys;\nMaster online digital-first journeys over traditional approaches; and\nIf you want a long-term commitment for your customers, be aware that brand and perceptions matter.\n\nFor example, after measuring the 24 enabling capabilities of the Obtain Personal Loan supporting the Loan Service Customer Journey map as per Figure 1 above, it\u2019s easier to conclude that the organization should focus its strategic initiative(s) toward enhancing the 4 problematic enabling capabilities (4 red arrows in Figure 1).\nTransformative initiatives based on problematic enabling capabilities\nThe problematic enabling capabilities in our example indicate that the bank is generating an abnormally high number of errors while fillings personal loans for its customers. This is why the bank is instigating the \u201cLowering Errors in Personal Loan Filling\u201d initiative. This initiative consists of 4 sub-initiatives that should impact positively on the 4 problematic enabling capabilities as followed:\n\nThe sub-initiative \u201cIncreasing the Accuracy of the Account\/Agreement Interest Determination\u201d should positively impact the \u201cAccount\/Agreement Interest Determination\u201d capability;\nThe sub-initiative \u201cAutomation of Loan Filling and Disbursement Process\u201d should positively impact the \u201cFinancial Transaction Disbursement Management\u201d capability;\nThe sub-initiative \u201cIncrease the Precision of the Description and Value of Collaterals\u201d should positively impact the \u201cCollateral and Loan Pairing\u201d capability; and\nThe sub-initiative \u201cIncrease the Accuracy of Client Scoring\u201d should positively impact the \u201cClient Risk Scoring\u201d capability.\n\nAfter examining gap items for each one of the 4 problematic enabling capabilities in the \u201cLowering Errors in Personal Loan Filings\u201d gap analysis, a specific strategic outcome needs to be established for each one of its impacting sub-initiative. The 4 strategic outcomes in this example are as followed:\n\nThe strategic outcome of the sub-initiative \u201cIncreasing the Accuracy of the Account\/Agreement Interest Determination\u201d could be \u201cCalculate the Account\/Agreement Interest Determination Based on Client Risk Scoring and Collaterals\u201d\nThe strategic outcome of the sub-initiative \u201cAutomation of Loan Filling and Disbursement Process\u201d could be \u201cLimit Human Intervention of the Loan Filing and Disbursement Process at the End for Final Approval\u201d\nThe strategic outcome of the sub-initiative \u201cIncrease the Precision of the Description and Value of Collaterals\u201d could be \u201cHave Less then 5% of Collaterals Valued at Least then 90% of Capital Loan\u201d\nThe strategic outcome of the sub-initiative \u201cIncrease the Accuracy of Client Scoring\u201d could be \u201cEstablish Client Risk Scoring on 2 Independent Credit Scoring Agencies.\u201d\n\nIt\u2019s only at this stage that an organization should examine the current and future software applications that are or could support the problematic enabling capabilities and the databases used by these applications to build various scenario roadmaps.\nDelivering optimal customer journeys\nMost chief digital officer and their corresponding Scrum teams within an organization a) design user interfaces, b) develop software for apps, websites, and automated journey steps, c) analyze and measure customer interactions data, d) oversee the back-end support of the organization\u2019s sales and customer services operations, and e) provide customer with marketing insight to ensure that branding is embedded throughout the customer journey, without any architecture at the planning stage. As I\u2019ve written in an article entitled \u201cDigital transformation using enterprise and business architecture,\u201d \u201c90% of corporate leaders view digital as a top priority,\u201d and yet \u201c83% of leaders struggle to make meaningful progress on digital transformation.\u201d I strongly believe that if agile teams were to start incorporating architecture at the planning stage, the number of leaders struggling to make any meaningful progress in their digital transformation would be much lower.\n Daniel Lambert\nDefining a detailed and very useful user story, as described in Figure 2 above, based on an architected customer journey would accelerate greatly its delivery. Most of the words used in this user story are made up of detailed elements defined and structured within the business and enterprise architecture of the company, including capabilities, stakeholders, value streams, information concepts, and business processes. Gathering the information to complete this user story using a business and architecture model will be completed at a quicker pace and at a lower risk of failure. Furthermore, building relevant requirements, epics and users stories using the organization\u2019s business and enterprise architecture will allow business analysts to waste less of their time and the business stakeholders\u2019 time from which they need to extract knowledge from.\nEnterprises use more and more various agile methodologies in the hope of speeding things up with the pursuit of optimal customer journeys. Yet most of them struggle in delivering these journeys on time and within budget. To make meaningful progress in their digital transformation, corporate leaders need more then agile pproaches.\u00a0 Agile teams need to start incorporating architecture early on at the planning stage of their initiatives.\u00a0 Focused business and enterprise architecture allow corporations to prioritize better at the planning level, cut time lost building relevant epics and user stories, and finally lower significantly the number of sprints necessary to complete their projects.