Klaus Zimmer, SAP\u2019s president and chief executive officer of Northern Asia, took charge of SAP\u2019s Chinese operations in 1997, a time when the most powerful executive at many Chinese companies was still the Communist Party secretary.Today, China\u2019s economy is booming. State-owned companies have tossed aside the shackles of a planned economy, and a growing number of Chinese companies are looking overseas for new markets and opportunities. Working closely with SAP\u2019s Chinese customers and partners, Zimmer watched firsthand as this transformation unfolded over the past decade.\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\nSAP\u2019s Klaus ZimmerZimmer recently sat down with IDG News Service at SAP\u2019s Beijing office to discuss the opportunities and challenges presented by China\u2019s fast-moving market. The following is an edited transcript of that conversation.IDG: There has been so much hype about China and the potential of the Chinese software market. Is the hype justified?Klaus Zimmer: Good question. I\u2019m actually not so bullish as people who watch China from the outside. I see more shadows than I see light, and I think that after 2008, when Beijing hosts the Olympics, there will be an adjustment in the economy.Today, there is huge overproduction in many, many sectors. I travel around the country and I visit many customers, and they all show me their new equipment, their new buildings, and then you ask yourself: Where is it going to lead? It\u2019s going to lead to huge overcapacity in steel, in automotives, in home appliances, and it will have repercussions on the world market. The Chinese are not going to buy all that stuff, so it will be dumped at special prices on the world market.Nevertheless, for the software market we are on a stable platform. At SAP, we have close to 1,300 customers. That\u2019s quite substantial: 1,300 customers and 2,300 installations. The majority, of course, are smaller companies, but more than 400 are big companies.IDG: Have Chinese companies generally embraced IT as a competitive advantage?Zimmer: One of our retail customers here once noted that the basket of goods that Chinese people carry out of the supermarket is equivalent to one-tenth of the value that American consumers carry out of the market. That\u2019s also our observation. The shopping behavior of the Chinese enterprises for software is about one-tenth of what equivalent companies\u2014in the U.S., for example\u2014are buying.IDG: Why is that?Zimmer: It\u2019s a homegrown system here. They are well aware that IT can help, but they do not rely on IT for a competitive edge. They are mainly focused on labor-intensive manufacturing. They are sitting here and they do not see efficiency gains from the ERP system helping the bottom line.Once they go outside China and go to the U.S. or European markets, they change their thinking. For example, we had Lenovo running SAP for six years before they acquired IBM\u2019s PC division. When they became an international company, they gave us a contract that was 10 times bigger within a year or so of the acquisition.International exposure clearly tells Chinese companies that they have to change; otherwise, they cannot compete on the world market. One of the biggest growth engines for our revenue is the internationalization of the Chinese companies.IDG: Has the CIO [chief information officer] emerged as an important position in Chinese companies?Zimmer: Ten years ago there was no CIO. The classical Chinese company had a general manager; a party secretary, who was the most powerful guy; and a chief engineer. There was no one else. These three guys managed the company. Today, you have the CIO, the CFO [chief financial officer], a guy who is doing the investor relations, and so on. It\u2019s becoming more common, especially in the banking business, where the CIO is actually quite powerful.IDG: How have ERP systems helped state-owned Chinese companies transition to the market economy?Zimmer: When you go back 10 years or so, the assets of the big trans-regional Chinese companies were not owned by the headquarters. They were owned by the province or by a local organization. So, even though these were the assets of the headquarters company, they were not controlled by the headquarters.You still have a lot of companies who don\u2019t have complete control over their regional units. Some state-owned companies use the reporting functions in SAP to get a grip on these independent regional units, just to see what is going on. For example, they can see what the revenue is in Shanghai or in Jiangsu province and so on.IDG: Do you see Chinese software companies rising to become international competitors for SAP?Zimmer: I don\u2019t think so. They are not growing beyond their language barriers. They are not a global competitive force on the world market. They possibly have a role to play in the Chinese communities worldwide, but not beyond this.IDG: What holds them back?Zimmer: None of them speaks English. It\u2019s actually a big challenge for Chinese companies to become international. The country was delinked from the world market for 40 or 50 years. It\u2019s a gap that you don\u2019t have in Korea or Taiwan, but you have in China.Today, when somebody is using Chinese ERP software like UFIDA, you don\u2019t have a multinational version and you don\u2019t have multinational support. To build that is extremely difficult. An international Chinese company cannot rely on the domestic players. That\u2019s very clear today, and it will be true for quite some years to come.IDG: Is it easy to recruit highly skilled programmers and engineers straight out of university in China?Zimmer: We generally don\u2019t get the quality of people we need. The education system is not providing them. What we have to do is train them, and that\u2019s an issue.When I look at our management teams, in all of our lines of business, they are all homegrown. We have built these capabilities over the years. I don\u2019t think you can come here, parachute in, and build a viable management system that can carry a huge organization out of nothing. It\u2019s not possible. You have to build the culture, you have to build the skills, you have to build the expertise.The universities here are not teaching the right stuff. The same problem exists in Europe. In Germany, they also are not teaching the right skills. It\u2019s not really close to the necessities of the market.IDG: What are the skills they need?Zimmer: First of all, the whole education system is built on repetition: basically memorizing and repeating stuff. The system is not built on questioning things and having healthy disputes over issues. That\u2019s what you need.Again, our senior managers have all been with the company for five to six years. They have grown through the ranks. We identify them and then we start developing them, training them and building them up. They go on to become the heart, the core of the company, and then they build the execution capabilities around them.-Sumner Lemon, IDG News Service (Beijing Bureau)Check out our CIO News Alerts and Tech Informer pages for more updated news coverage.