Open source is here to stay: Here's how to deal with it.Compiled by Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Editor-in-Chief, Practical Technology and \n\nChris Lindquist\nWhat is open source?\n\nWhy use open-source software?\n\nWhy not to use open source?\n\nHow should I get started with open source?\n\nWhat about the desktop?\n\nCan I sell open source-based products?\n\nOpen-source resources\nThe success of open-source software has been remarkable, forcing even the largest commercial software vendors such as \n\n\t\n IBM\n \n, \n\n\t\n Hewlett-Packard\n \n, \n\n\t\n Oracle\n \n and \n\n\t\n Microsoft\n \n to acknowledge its influence and, in some cases, adopt its methods. It seems likely that most companies with information technology departments of \n\nany size are familiar with\u2014if not actively using\u2014open-source products on a daily basis.\n\n\n\nBut its ubiquity can lead to more questions than answers. Here, therefore, are the answers:What is open source?Back in 1997, Bruce Perens, a prominent Linux operating system developer, wrote a document concerning the distribution and development of the \n\nDebian Linux distribution. He later removed references to Debian and created what is now known as The Open Source Definition. Among other things, the Definition states that open \n\nsource software must be distributed without royalty, that the distributor must make the source code for the software freely available, and the derivative works \n\nfrom the code must also be released as open source.Open source is essentially a cousin of the Free Software Movement, created in 1983 by Richard Stallman to promote the free distribution of software unfettered by standard \n\nproprietary code restrictions. Free software's rules are codified by the General Public License (GPL), which as of October 2006 was under review for its third revision.There are literally dozens of Open Source \n\nInitiative certified licenses, each with its own peculiar rules that require close examination by any company looking to use open-source software. These rules are \n\nusually quite generous for anyone who merely wishes to use open source software. The requirements for redistribution, however, can require careful scrutiny \n\nto avoid potential license violation issues.Open source, once you strip out all the emotion, is simply a way to develop software. Unlike other programming models, open source takes the \n\nviewpoint that developers create better programs if they can share their code. At its simplest level, this saves programmers from having to constantly write code that 'reinvents the wheel.' Its virtues are far more than that though. Eric \n\nS. Raymond summarized in his seminal work on open source, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, why open source is such an efficient way to create programs. First, by welcoming programmers who \n\nwant to work on a project, you're guaranteeing having developers who start with having a vested interest in the project's success. As Raymond puts it, \n\n"Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer's personal itch."The natural follow-up to this is that you get users who also become invested in the project. Now, these users may never become programmers, but they \n\ncan contribute ideas, bug-reports, quality assurance testing, and never least, a group with an interest in your project. If that idea sounds familiar. It should. It's \n\nthe foundation of corporate communities and social networking.These ideas have caught fire because open-source delivers the goods. Major open-source programs like the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, \n\nPHP\/Perl\/Python) are what power up the Internet. In addition, it's quite likely that they, and the programs and DBMSs that are built from them, are what's \n\nkeeping your office servers going. At the same time companies like Red Hat and Novell, which are closely tied to open source, make hundreds of millions of \n\ndollars from open-source software, while still others, such as IBM and Oracle, make billions of dollars annually from supporting open-source programs.Why use open-source software?Let's start with the reason anyone can understand: It's cheap. But, what's more important is that the open-source software model's return on investment is outstanding. While people can argue until they're blue in \n\nthe face about exactly how much bottom-line goodness you can get from using open source, the simple facts are that it delivers the goods at an affordable \n\nprice. Consider, if you will, that of Alexa's Top 20 Global Web sites, only the handful owned by Microsoft aren't built on top of open-source software.This hasn't happened overnight, but by the late 1990s, many corporations began switching to open-source software for their Internet needs. It's \n\nscalability, both on the technical and business\u2014no need to continuously buy new licenses\u2014made it ideal for the Internet. Now, after about a \n\ndecade of proving itself, open-source software stacks have been moving from edge servers on the Internet and department servers for branch offices to core business applications. For example, open-source is moving into ERP (enterprise resource \n\nplanning) and CRM (customer relationship management). Indeed, except for the desktop where, despite the Windows Vista flop, Windows hangs on, today's business software stack is an \n\nopen-source stack. Indeed, even on Windows, open-source programs like Firefox and OpenOffice are being relied on by more and \n\nmore office workers. And, needless to say, if you're in the software development business yourself, open-source software lends itself perfectly to collaborative \n\nsoftware development. Why not to use open source?Ah...this is 2009 right? There really aren't any good reasons not to use it. That said, the same tired, out-dated arguments you're likely to run into include \n\nthe following:Free software really isn't free. Yes, you do need to train users on it, you may very well need a support contract for it, but so what? What \n\nsoftware doesn't require training and some support? With open-source, at least you have the option, by either hiring experienced IT staffers or training them \n\nup yourself of having software that requires annual service contracts and costly manidatory , whether you need or want them or not. And, again this is 2009. Open-source savvy administrators, technicians, and the like are as easily available as any other IT professional. \n\nCan I get support for it? In open-source's early days that could be an issue. Today, if you need support, your open-source 'vendor' is likely to \n\nbe your big-name vendor. Dell, HP, IBM, Oracle, you get the idea. For mainstream open-source applications it's simply not an issue. That said, if you want to rely on more cutting edge, open-source applications, then you may run into support problems. But, the same thing is true of \n\nrelying on any cutting edge software. Possible open source legal troubles. If you're not in software development, this isn't a concern. Do you worry about what might happen to your \n\noffice copies of Windows when Microsoft loses another lawsuit? I doubt it. Microsoft keeps going on, and except, for an increase in a licensing fee, or \n\nInternet Explorer no longer being included by default in the next version of Windows, you'll never notice the difference. \n\nThe same thing is true of open-source products. If you're in the programming business then you do need to know your way around open-source licenses, A competent IP (intellectual property) is all you \n\nneed to steer clear of any potential problems here.\nWhat is open source?\n\nWhy use open-source software?\n\nWhy not to use open source?\n\nHow should I get started with open source?\n\nWhat about the desktop?\n\nCan I sell open source-based products?\n\nOpen-source resources\n How should I get started with open source?That's really not the right question. The right question is: "What business software needs do I have?" Once you've identified them you simply look at what \n\nprograms might answer your requirements. Chances are many of them will be open source. Remember, after all the yadda-yadda about open-source vs. proprietary software, for business users, it's all just software. Over the last few years open \n\nsource programs, since they tend to develop far faster and are usually cheaper and more secure then their proprietary brothers, have popped up everywhere. \n\nThere's very few areas, if anym where one or more open-source software programs aren't already well-established options for business users. What about the desktop?Despite endless security problems, high \n\nprices, and Vista falling flat on its face, Windows is still the dominant desktop \n\noperating system. You can, however, opt to give desktop Linux a try. Anything you might have heard about desktop Linux requiring you to be a technical wizard with the \n\ncommand line, aka the shell, to get any work is pure Microsoft fabrication. Desktop Linux no more requires you to be a techie than Windows XP or Mac \n\nOX X does. Everything and anything you can do on a Windows desktop you can do without a lick more trouble on a Linux desktop.Unlike Windows Vista and Windows 7, where you're faced with a multitude of choices which really boils down the more money you pay, the more \n\naccess you get to the operating system's features, the Linux desktop offers you essentially the same functionality no matter which one you pick. That said, \n\nwith multiple Linux distributions and desktop interface, picking a desktop Linux can can be quite confusing. For starters there are three different popular Linux desktop interfaces: the older KDE \n\n3.5.x series; KDE 4.x; and \n\nGNOME 2.x. The short version of the differences between them is that KDE 3.5x looks and acts a fair amount like the Windows XP interface. KDE 4 feels \n\nmore like Vista's Aero interface without that front-end's notoriously poor performance. GNOME comes closer in feel to Mac OS X Tiger. These interfaces \n\nare available on most desktop Linux distributions.As you may know there are dozens of different Linux desktop distributions. For business purposes, this boils down though to the Debian\/Ubuntu family \n\nof desktops, which are quite popular and Novell's openSUSE and SLED (SUSE Linux \n\nEnterprise Desktop).The Debian\/Ubuntu family, which \n\nincludes Mepis, Mint, Ubuntu, and Kubuntu, distributions have some commercial and a great deal of community support. If your office \n\nalready has some Linux-smart IT administrators, these are all fine choices. SLED has the strongest desktop support from both hardware and software \n\nvendors. If you want a desktop Linux with "one throat to choke" support, SLED through a vendor like HP, is your best choice. You may have noticed that Red Hat is missing from this list. That's because Red Hat's focus is \n\non the server, not the desktop. While Fedora, Red Hat's \n\ncommunity Linux, makes a fine desktop, neither the company, nor the Fedora community, support it for business use. This makes Fedora a viable business \n\ndesktop choice only for offices that already have high-levels of in-house Linux expertise.Oh course, you can keep your Windows and use open-source software too. Firefox and OpenOffice have already been mentioned, but there's little in \n\nthe way of software that you're already using that can't be replaced with a free, open-source program. For example, are you locked in with Quicken and its \n\nforced upgrade path or the recently deceased Microsoft Money? Then, \n\nconsider trying GnuCash, which has most of their features and can import the data from either one. \n\nFor an excellent list of open-source alternatives to proprietary software see the Open Source as Alternative Web site (http:\/\/www.osalt.com). Can I sell open source-based products?Yes, of course, you can. Companies from IBM on down to one-person shops do it every day. What's different from traditional proprietary software \n\nsales is that you have to let your customers get access to the source code. How much access depends on the exact license. Generally speaking, open-source companies make money from their code not by selling it but by adding services around the program, or by providing \n\nenterprise-level support options. This is the moel used by Red Hat, the most successful of all the pure open-source companies. Other companies maintain two versions of their code. There's the cutting edge, open source one, and the other which uses more mature code, which \n\nfrequent adds proprietary add-ons. This mixed model is becoming increasingly popular, with companies like SourceFire, a network security company and Alfresco, which supplies \n\ncontent management software doing quite well with this model.Another popular approach is to use open-source software as the engine behind a SaaS (Software as a Service) business. Zimbra, an e-mail\/groupware company, and SugarCRM (http:\/\/www.sugarcrm.com\/crm\/) are two \n\noutstanding examples of this approach in action. Other open-source resourcesLocations on the Web to find Open-Source Software\n\nApache Foundation. Best known as the open-source group behind the Apache Web server, the \n\nFoundation also supports numerous important server-side open-source projects.\n\nLinux Foundation. The non-profit group behind Linux. Their site also provides access to \n\nmany useful Linux resources.\n\nPractical Technology. News and opinion site, which is largely devoted to open source \n\ntechnology and business news, reviews, and opinion.\n\nSourceForge. This is one of the largest and most popular open-source development and \n\ndownload sites.\n\nFreshMeat: A huge database of downloadable software, much of it open \n\nsource.\nOpen-Source Resources: Legal and Otherwise\nSoftware Freedom Law Center. This organization provide legal representation and \n\nother law-related services to free software and open-source organizations. \n\nOpen Source Initiative: Nonprofit corporation dedicated to \n\nopen source and founded by many of the earliest players in the field.\n\nOpen Source Technology Group: Possibly the world's \n\ntop promoter of open-source technology. Owner of Slashdot news site, \n\nSourceForge and freshmeat.\n\nOpen Source Risk Management: Offers \n\ncompliance insurance and other services.\n\nOpen Source Development Labs: Organization dedicated \n\nto promoting Linux use in enterprises.