Some of the country\u2019s largest IT organizations are looking trim and vigorous these days. It\u2019s no miracle cure or diet of the month. It\u2019s a particular piece of process methodology called Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a defect reduction methodology that transforms organizations by forcing them to focus on the quality of the customer experience. The term sigma refers to deviations from an ideal level of operation, where each level of sigma, starting from one, allows for fewer defects. Sigma six, the operational equivalent of nirvana, allows a mere 3.4 defects per million outputs. If you\u2019re in manufacturing, that means 999,996.6 flaw-free widgets. If you\u2019re in IT, that means fewer servers, faster call response times and better project delivery.Six Sigma got its start in manufacturing at Motorola in the 1980s, and later spread to nuts-and-bolts powerhouses like AlliedSignal, General Electric and Honeywell International. But now CIOs at companies of all disciplines are adopting Six Sigma for its fact-based, quantifiable insistence on continuous improvement and its ability to doggedly root out and improve defects in processes. "Six Sigma isn\u2019t just a manufacturing thing. It can be applied to the financial services industry very effectively," says Doug Sutton, president of Fidelity Wide Processing, where the methodology is delivering cost reductions and quality improvements in the range of 20 percent to 50 percent across the board. "A lot of our potential customers are asking if we use it. They want to know if we\u2019re focused on business process improvement, and the answer is yes." On the numbers side, Six Sigma provides CIOs with an objective, measurable way to justify technology investments; on the karma side, it serves as a judgment-free common language between IT and other project stakeholders within the company. "IT always gets caught up in insatiable demands and lost ROI. Six Sigma solves both those problems," says Charles P. Costa, executive vice president and CIO at Chase Financial Services, which assigns a Six Sigma team to most IT projects worth more than $1 million. "Six Sigma gives us a very precise way to demonstrate the real value of technology, and it helps us improve the way we deliver that value." Six Sigma has a lot of normally staid CIOs excited for a good reason: Quality is back on the corporate radar in a big way. "We\u2019ve cut so far into IT in the past couple of years that we\u2019re starting to see some quality problems," says Val Sribar, a Meta Group senior vice president. "If you\u2019re smart about where you apply [Six Sigma], if you apply it to your core disciplines, it makes a lot of sense right now."Still, wary and weary CIOs, especially those who have endured both the 1990s flavor-of-the-month management mania and the apparently endless post-bubble budget crises, are justified in wondering if Six Sigma is right for them. Six Sigma users insist it works for all types of companies and in all functions, but they do admit there are a few times when the methodology won\u2019t take. If your resources have truly been cut beyond the point of pain, now isn\u2019t the time?not because you don\u2019t need Six Sigma\u2019s benefits (you probably do, more than ever) but because burned-out staffers and stressed-out managers aren\u2019t likely to be able to give the regimen its due. While very small IT shops can benefit from Six Sigma\u2019s approach to error reduction, they\u2019ll have to wait to see quantifiable benefits. "There\u2019s still applicability, but it will take a small shop a long time to know whether they\u2019ve reduced their defects to three in a million, just because it\u2019s going to take longer to get to that first million," observes Matt Light, a research director at Gartner. And finally, every single IT professional experienced with Six Sigma emphasizes that it absolutely, positively requires top-down buy-in. Six Sigma is an executive-directed transformation tool, and if senior management isn\u2019t interested or willing to personally sponsor the strategy, it\u2019s going to fail?point blank. "To have a successful Six Sigma initiative in your company, senior management has to understand its role: to pick teams, decide what measurements are going to matter, establish some form of accountability and visibility, and set up a mechanism to establish and track results," says Alan Larson, author of Demystifying Six Sigma: A Company-Wide Approach to Continuous Improvement who worked at Motorola in the 1980s and was part of the team that introduced Six Sigma to Honeywell.How Six Sigma Works in ITDespite its origin in manufacturing, Six Sigma isn\u2019t about widgets; the focus is on processes. When applied to IT operations, Six Sigma aims to measure and improve both internal processes, such as network speed and reliability, and line-of-business processes in which IT has a role, such as how well an online ordering system is working. "IT is a big user of processes: testing and hardware implementation and software development," says Doug Debrecht, vice president and CIO at Raytheon Aircraft, where the entire IT workforce has had some form of Six Sigma training. "Six Sigma has given us a good toolset that we can use consistently and repeatedly to analyze how we have things set up and running."Six Sigma analysis tends to begin with the formulation of a problem statement. One Six Sigma team at Raytheon, for example, was charged with analyzing why the division had what Debrecht admits was "an ungodly number" of servers?350. "We needed to figure out a way to consolidate and be smarter in how we deployed our servers," he says. The Six Sigma team determined the root cause of the problem?that each application got its own server, regardless of its size or bandwidth requirements?and then worked out the specifics to allow applications to share servers logically and securely. The result: a 40 percent consolidation in servers, with the attendant time and labor savings added back to the bottom line. The methodology breaks down problem evaluation into five distinct steps: define, measure, analyze, improve and control. Practitioners call this rubric DMAIC for short, pronounced "de-MAY-ick." (Another approach, Design for Six Sigma, aims to remove defects from a process during the design phase. It\u2019s generally used only by organizations that have mastered the DMAIC methodology.)At each of the DMAIC steps, organizations apply appropriate tools and measures from a wide variety of choices. Some, such as histograms, Pareto charts and Scatter diagrams, may already be familiar to IT. Others, which boast names such as Voice of the Customer or House of Quality, probably aren\u2019t, though CIOs report that these customer-centric tools are often the ones they find most enlightening. Textron used the DMAIC process and the Voice of the Customer tool, among others, to tackle data-center sprawl. "We found we had over 80 data centers inside our company," says Ken Bohlen, Textron\u2019s executive vice president and chief innovation officer. "We used Voice of the Customer to canvass our customer base and ask some very specific questions," such as what critical information was stored where. By making customer needs the top priority, Textron has been able to consolidate or shut down 40 of the data centers, which were supporting legacy or underused applications. Bohlen says his long-term goal is to get down to five data centers.While Six Sigma often helps organizations refine and streamline operations, the methodology can also be used to leverage existing systems for customer benefit. Chase Financial Services formed a Six Sigma team to take a look at the costs accrued by customer service representatives. The team recommended technology changes to the company\u2019s interactive voice-response system to allow customers to more easily find their own answers to routine questions, which in turn allowed service representatives to redirect their efforts into selling additional products. Pioneer CIOs and industry watchers point to some best practices for reaping success from Six Sigma in IT.1. Pick the right people. Workers trained in Six Sigma techniques act like internal SWAT teams, coming together to tackle a given process, then breaking apart and reforming, often in a different configuration, to undertake the next challenge. Depending on what level of Six Sigma training employees have undergone, they\u2019re known as green belts, brown belts or black belts, with black belts most often deployed to lead a team or tackle projects on their own. It\u2019s important to tap motivated employees for training, which produces a high-performance team and at the same time signals that Six Sigma is part of an upward career path. "If you grab the C- and D-level players because you can spare them, you\u2019re sending the wrong message," says Textron\u2019s Bohlen. "We started with the best and brightest, and showed that [Six Sigma training] accelerated their careers. Now I have a waiting list of people wanting to get black belt training." Be careful about training people but not giving them a project right away to work on, warns Chase Financial Services\u2019 Costa. "We have found it very beneficial for people to take a project with them into training or to start something right after," he says.2. Don\u2019t substitute Six Sigma for thinking. For IT staffers particularly, the urge is strong to first use tools they know (that is, technology) before dipping into untried methodologies. Resist that urge, counsels Fidelity Wide Processing\u2019s Sutton. "If you just throw technology at a business problem, all you wind up with is a bad process with new technology. If you wring out the process first, then you can really use technology to move it to a higher level." As a case in point, Fidelity Wide Processing used Six Sigma tenets to reengineer its inbound, paper-based, customer data processing operation. Only after gaining 32 percent improvement by streamlining the process did Sutton\u2019s department start to consider new technologies. The company is currently expanding its use of advanced character recognition technology to speed processing of customer data. 3. Don\u2019t be afraid to tinker. While the philosophy behind Six Sigma is, or should be, sacrosanct?focus on the customer, reduce defects, streamline and improve processes, evaluate continuously?you needn\u2019t treat the tactics and tools as if they\u2019re set in stone. Many big companies, including Honeywell and Textron, have their own internal "brands" of Six Sigma that have been tailored to their line of business and oftentimes combined with Lean, another manufacturing technique designed to weed out non-value-adding subprocesses. Other organizations fine-tune the DMAIC model as needed. Chase Financial, for example, added a step called "implement." At the toolset level, Raytheon\u2019s Debrecht says his teams have wide latitude when it comes to suggesting which measures are appropriate for which projects. "We use brainstorming, value mapping, fishbone diagrams and something we call the \u2019five whys\u2019 to help us get to the root cause of an issue," he says. Textron\u2019s Bohlen gives that approach a thumbs-up. "Six Sigma is a system of tools," he says. "There\u2019s no prescribed set. You have to determine what you want to bring to your workforce before you choose your tools."One word of warning: A cautious CIO might be tempted to try a little bit of Six Sigma here and there to see if it works. That\u2019s a mistake, says Costa. "We tried too hard to go part-time on some of this stuff, so projects were taking too long. Now we try to focus black belts full-time on a project, and in most cases we\u2019re seeing between $1 million and $3 million in benefits," he says.4. Don\u2019t get bogged down in numbers. Like any other measurement-based system, Six Sigma can be driven into the ground by too many numbers. "All that statistical analysis that the black belts use, all those data points don\u2019t add up unless you understand what you\u2019re measuring," says Gartner\u2019s Light. The "define" phase in DMAIC is, in his opinion, probably the most important part of the discipline, and it\u2019s the one that involves the fewest metrics. "Chartering the team and specifying who the customers are and defining what a good experience is and what\u2019s a defect, that\u2019s where the value is," he says."You can use statistics in degrees," echoes Sutton. "People hear \u2019measure\u2019 and they say, \u2019Oh, we gotta have a control chart.\u2019 But there are certain areas where we have no control charts. What\u2019s important is the methodology and how you apply it." How to Sell Six SigmaFor all their enthusiasm, CIOs acknowledge that the most difficult aspect of Six Sigma may well be trying to sell its benefits to the rank and file, many of whom have lived through too many rah-rah kickoffs in the conference room to embrace any more management initiatives. Six Sigma can certainly turn into some executive\u2019s pet leadership strategy that\u2019s launched and forgotten three months down the line. But if it\u2019s done right, practitioners say, Six Sigma stimulates a fundamental change in the way an organization conducts business and makes decisions. So what\u2019s the best way to introduce that change? Maybe not at all. Fidelity Wide Processing\u2019s Sutton is a fan of the show-first-tell-later strategy. When Six Sigma was new to his organization, he sometimes shunned the words Six Sigma or training or quality."We don\u2019t come in with touchy-feely training and have [skeptics] say, \u2019Oh yeah, right, Six Sigma,\u2019" Sutton says. "We say, let\u2019s talk about your business problems. You need to drive improvements in your business, and we\u2019re going to show you how to do it." And that, Sutton says, reels them in every time.