If the past couple of years have taught us anything, it is that the business environment in which we function is extremely unpredictable. For companies struggling to get ahead in this uncertainty, this book has some intriguing advice on how to align your project portfolio with your corporate strategy in a dynamic way designed to flex with the shifting realities. In the chapter excerpted here, called "The Alignment Workshop," authors Cathleen Benko and F. Warren McFarlan give detailed advice on several tools aimed at helping companies manage their project portfolios and align with overall IT and business goals. One of these methodologies is an approach called project chunking, a rules-based way to reduce the high risk of project failure. Read on to discover how that tool breaks projects into more easily managed chunks or steps, which reduce the size of projects, allow later project phases to more readily learn from earlier ones, deliver standalone benefits, and give project managers the ability to more easily obtain funding and change direction and scope.The information frontier\u2019s increased velocity has dramatically heightened expectations. [Editor\u2019s note: In this book, the authors describe the phrase "information frontier" as a metaphor for the current, unpredictable business environment.] Businesses are expected to deliver results ever faster and ever better. Project chunking responds to these rising expectations. It breaks projects into manageable chunks, each of which delivers incremental benefits. This tactic has several merits. First, risk is reduced because projects are smaller and less complex; moreover, later chunks learn from earlier ones and thus have faster response times to new information. Second, incremental benefits are realized earlier and more reliably (which is, of course, the flip side of lower risk\/ better return). Finally, project chunking provides more frequent choice points, making it easier to change project direction, scope or budget when needed. In this way, it makes the portfolio more flexible.Over time, the benefits accrue and (expectedly) exceed the initial investment. With each phase of the project, the investment-to-benefit ratio changes. Projects usually have one to several phases of net investment before net benefits are realized.[Editor\u2019s note: To understand how chunking does all that, consider the typical approach to a project. Under this method, an ambitious, large-scale project is scheduled in a traditional phased approach during several time periods, with, as with most projects, some period of up-front investment.]So what\u2019s wrong with this picture? Well, nothing really. It\u2019s a picture of a well-designed project that has properly scoped phases and will achieve benefits over time. But the loftier the project goal and the longer the time to implement, the greater the risk. Remember that we\u2019re talking about life on the information frontier, where unpredictability lurks around every turn.So what is the alternative? An incremental or "chunked" approach.In the traditional scenario, there are only two opportunities to capture value. The long time frame pushes the realization of benefit far into the future, and the corresponding "triangle" of risk is larger. In the chunked [scenario], each triangle is smaller than those in the traditional model because the organization is incurring less risk at each stage of investment. There is less risk in part because there is less investment at any given time and because each chunk realizes benefits?but also because there is more information available stage by stage. When chunking is applied, information from earlier chunks is available to subsequent ones. Each chunk can also take advantage of new information the company gains?about its markets, its competitors or a new technology, for example.Think about it. Companies are constantly gaining new data and clarity about conditions in the market. This data should be used to shape (or reshape) current projects, as well as assist in future funding decisions. Having more opportunities to act on new information improves project results.Chunking also builds opportunities [Editor\u2019s note: to ensure that people, including employees and customers, can handle the change caused by a particular project]. Since chunking has more frequent choice points, constituencies that will be affected by a proposed change can participate more often in project decisions. [Editor\u2019s note: This is yet another reason why risk is smaller at the different phases of chunked projects.]So what does all this mean? Although there are times when the chunking outcome would deliver a lesser net benefit than the best-outcomes result of a traditional project implementation in the same time frame, it may still be the preferred approach?especially when factoring in the probability of a best-outcomes result and the associated reduction in overall project risk. In fact, a study by The Standish Group concluded that the smaller the duration and team size of a project, the greater its chances of success (which it defined as being on time, on budget, and with all features and functions originally specified). A typical project with a team of six and a six-month time frame, for example, had a 55 percent success rate. This stands in stark contrast to the 8 percent success rate enjoyed by projects of more than 250 people and an average duration of 24 months. In other words, best outcomes are seldom achieved or may only be achieved through relatively high-risk scenarios. Most of the time, you are better off chunking.Two important caveats about chunking. The first, implied previously, is that it isn\u2019t always appropriate. For example, you generally wouldn\u2019t use chunking to build a large-scale transaction-processing system. The second caveat: Chunking requires a clear road map and an explicit understanding of where the end-state lies. A Chunk of Savings ExampleDoes chunking really work? Does it make sense, out there in the real world, to break bigger projects into smaller ones?The real-world evidence suggests that the answer to those questions is yes. Let\u2019s look at the case of Carlson Hospitality Worldwide, which is the company that manages Radisson and other high-visibility hotel properties. When Carlson\u2019s managers asked their board of directors to authorize a complete overhaul of the company\u2019s central reservation system, the board rejected the $15 million request as being too much, too fast. End of story? No. Carlson\u2019s managers then adopted a chunking approach, which featured flexible "choice" points at which the board could elect to stop the project but retain benefits already gained.The team set up a number of guidelines to help design the chunks. Standalone benefits at the end of each one were, of course, a must. But they also focused on minimizing rework and keeping mutual dependencies to a minimum. (In other words, if one chunk was canceled, others could still go forward.) Another requirement was to work with legacy systems, since these would still be in place during some of the early chunks. With those plans in hand, the management team sought funding for the first chunk, which the board soon approved.Chunking also let Carlson respond flexibly to new information not known at the beginning of the project?for example, how important connecting to the Internet would become. As information became available, some chunks were canceled and others added.The payoff? The new system was voted best reservation system in the industry and handles more than 7.9 million room [bookings] per year. The voice-reservation chunk alone has already generated $40 million in annual revenue.So, in summary, chunking\n\n Is a "get benefits as you go," results-focused approach.\n Offers more frequent decision points at which the company can elect to change or modify the project\u2019s course.\n Helps leverage new information and learning, thereby contributing to risk reduction.\n Also reduces risk by shortening time frames and reducing complexity.