With 2022 now in our rearview mirror, we still reflect on a time marked by global upheavals, like the Russia - Ukraine war, to the skyrocketing energy prices and global inflation. The impact of these disruptions reverberated worldwide, reaching beyond just our economy. These global events have also underscored the crucial significance of safeguarding our critical infrastructure against domestic or foreign attacks.\n\nAs the end of 2023 approaches, it becomes imperative to assess the current landscape of cybersecurity threats, explore potential strategies to combat them, and explore the new practice measures that can be taken.\n\nThis analysis isn't just a statistical exercise but a crucial necessity in our interconnected world, where the security of our digital infrastructure is intertwined with our physical safety and economic stability. \n\nNavigating the complexities of the modern cybersecurity landscape\n\nIn this digital age, the field of cybersecurity is becoming increasingly intricate and challenging. Our interconnected online world is no longer separate from our lives, businesses, or our global economy. As a result, cyber threats have the power to cause real-world effects that spread across industries and sectors leaving a lasting impact on a major level.\n\nIt's easy to envision the outcomes that could arise from a major assault on our vital infrastructure. This underscores the pressing importance for security researchers and cybersecurity professionals to work together to evaluate risks, devise defenses and team up with governments and corporations to safeguard our resources.\n\nThankfully, as new dangers arise, we also see the emergence of groundbreaking technologies that can help us combat them. While these technologies aren't complete fixes to the problem, they do offer an extra layer of security to protect our vital infrastructure.\n\nModern advancements like artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning and blockchain-based networks specifically have an impact in this area. By leveraging these tools, organizations can utilize multiple technologies like Active Directory alongside Privileged Access Management (PAM) solutions to build layered corporate defense and more accurately detect threats and respond quickly which leads to improved security performance.\n\nUncovering the domestic and foreign threats to critical infrastructure\n\nCritical infrastructure refers to the physical and virtual systems and assets so vital to our society that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic stability, public health, or safety. As technology advances, so too does the sophistication of threats to these essential systems.\n\nRansomware Attacks: Ransomware attacks pose a substantial threat to critical infrastructure. These attacks employ malicious software that encrypts files, rendering them inaccessible until a ransom is paid or a backup is restored.\n\nCybercriminals specifically target sectors such as healthcare, energy, and transportation, recognizing the significant consequences at stake. Organizations in these sectors cannot afford prolonged downtime, which then increases the likelihood of succumbing to the ransom demands.\n\nFinancial Institution Attacks: Financial institutions are highly susceptible to cyber threats due to their large amounts of highly sensitive data. Money laundering, social engineering scams, and identity theft are all examples of attacks that can be used against financial institutions. Making matters worse, these attacks often go undetected when organizations fail to properly monitor their systems.\n\nSocial Engineering Attacks: Social engineering attacks leverage human psychology to deceive individuals into divulging sensitive information or undertaking actions that jeopardize security. These attacks frequently take the form of phishing emails or impersonation scams and are particularly potent due to their exploitation of trust.\n\nWhen successful, social engineering attacks grant cybercriminals entry into secure systems and access to sensitive data, presenting a grave threat to critical infrastructure.\n\nBotnet Attacks: Botnets, networks of compromised computers controlled by an attacker, pose another substantial threat to critical infrastructure. These networks can be used to carry out Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, overwhelming a system\u2019s resources and causing service disruptions. In addition, botnets can be used for data theft, spam distribution, and ransomware dissemination.\n\nPractical steps needed to improve national and state security postures\n\nHaving a robust security posture is not just about digital defenses but also about physical security measures. Here are some practical steps that organizations can take to significantly enhance their security posture.\n\nInstalling ID Badge Verification at Doorways: One simplest yet most effective way to enhance physical security is by installing ID badge verification systems at doorways. This ensures that only authorized individuals can access sensitive areas within a facility. An advanced ID badge system can also track entry and exit times, providing valuable data in the event of a security breach.\n\nUsing Security Fencing Around Buildings: Security fencing is a physical barrier to unauthorized access, making it more difficult for intruders to enter a facility. A well-designed security fence also acts as a psychological deterrent, signaling potential intruders that the facility takes its security seriously.\n\nDepending on the level of security needed, facilities might opt for high-security fencing options, such as anti-climb or electrified fences.\n\nLocking Devices When Not in Use: One of the most simple yet often neglected security practices is the act of locking devices when they are not in use. Unlocked devices can easily grant access to sensitive information to those with physical access to the device, whether a computer in an office or a mobile device left unattended in a public space.\n\nBy developing the habit of promptly locking our devices, even for a brief moment, we can effectively minimize the risk of unauthorized access and potential data breaches.\n\nHaving a Backup Power Generator: A backup power generator may not seem directly related to cybersecurity, but it plays a crucial role in maintaining operational continuity during power outages. Cyber attacks often aim to disrupt operations, and a power outage can serve as a force multiplier for these disruptions.\n\nA backup generator ensures that essential systems remain online during a power outage, reducing the potential impact of cyber attacks and other disruptions.\n\nEnabling Privileged Access Management: Privileged Access Management (PAM) is critical to any strong cybersecurity strategy. It involves managing and monitoring access to critical systems and data, ensuring that only authorized individuals can access the resources needed to perform their roles.\n\nPAM can help prevent insider threat risks and reduce the potential of credentials becoming compromised. Furthermore, it provides a clear audit trail, which can be invaluable in investigating security incidents.\n\nDeploying Network Monitoring: While physical security measures are vital, we cannot overlook the importance of securing our digital infrastructure. Deploying network monitoring tools can provide real-time visibility into the network's activities. These tools can detect unusual patterns or behaviors that could signify a cyber attack, such as sudden spikes in network traffic or unauthorized access attempts.\n\nMoreover, network monitoring tools can help identify vulnerabilities within the system, allowing IT teams to address these weak points before they can be exploited. Regular network monitoring combined with timely updates and patches forms a significant part of maintaining a robust cybersecurity posture.\n\nAnd as more teams go remote, this increases risk to a company\u2019s network, so utilizing solutions like Privileged Access Management (PAM) to harden Remote Access Protocols (RDP) is essential. Regular network monitoring combined with timely updates and patches forms a significant part of maintaining a robust cybersecurity posture.\n\nCreating a Robust Business Continuity Plan: A business continuity plan (BCP) is a proactive planning process that ensures critical services or products are delivered during a disruption. A BCP typically includes four steps: business impact analysis, recovery strategies, plan development, and testing and exercises.\n\nIn the context of national and state security, a robust BCP ensures that essential functions continue operating during a crisis, whether a natural disaster, a cyber attack, or any other disruptive event. It also outlines how to get back to 'business as usual' quickly after a disruption.\n\nHaving a well-documented and regularly updated BCP can significantly enhance resilience and reduce the impact of disruptions on operations and services.\n\nIntroducing a Comprehensive Employee Cybersecurity Training Program: Employees often represent a significant vulnerability in an organization's cybersecurity posture. Without proper training, they can fall victim to phishing attacks, inadvertently download malware, or mishandle sensitive data.\n\nIntroducing a comprehensive employee cybersecurity training program can significantly reduce these risks. Such a program should cover many topics, including recognizing and avoiding phishing emails, using strong passwords, securing devices, and understanding the importance of regular software updates.\n\nBut a truly effective program goes beyond just imparting knowledge\u2014it also fosters a culture of security where employees understand their role in protecting the organization's data and systems. Regular training sessions, combined with ongoing reinforcement and practical exercises, can help embed security awareness into the everyday behaviors of employees.\n\nKeeping an eye on the future\n\nImproving national and state security postures is a multi-faceted task requiring proactive and reactive measures. This involves implementing physical security measures like ID badge verification, security fencing, backup power generators, and digital defenses such as network monitoring and privileged access management.\n\nA comprehensive business continuity plan is essential for maintaining the uninterrupted operation of critical functions during a crisis. This plan enhances resilience and minimizes the potential impact of disruptions.\n\nBy implementing these practical measures, organizations can establish a secure environment that effectively deters threats and enables fast recovery, contributing to our nation's overall safety and security.\n\nDon\u2019t wait until it\u2019s too late to protect your privileged accounts. Make a plan and start with Delinea's complementary, customizable Cybersecurity Incident Response Plan Template.\n\n\n\nJoseph Carson is a cybersecurity professional with more than 25 years of experience in enterprise security and infrastructure. Currently, Carson is the Chief Security Scientist & Advisory CISO at Delinea. He is an active member of the cybersecurity community and a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP). Carson is also a cybersecurity adviser to several governments, critical infrastructure organizations, and financial and transportation industries, and speaks at conferences globally.